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Wagon Train to Denver, 1865
You’ve made your choice. Let’s see what happens to you!
Pioneers Background Information
• Merchant • Overland Trail • Pioneer or settler • Provisions • Sacred • Team of oxen • Timber
• Acre • Alkali • Ammunition • Arapaho, Cheyenne, Sioux • Buffalo • Emigrant • Ferry • Ford
Native Americans/Settlers ComicsIndian #1Indian #2Settler Culture Conflict PlayInterviewer William Bent Indian Settler Uncle Sam #2
Read Aloud Roles
Roles for ComicsGreen Russell59erFarmer Uncle SamBlack Kettle (Chief of the Cheyenne)General LeeAbe LincolnWifePioneer
• How and why did people move west? • Why were settlers and Native Americans in Colorado fighting throughout the 1860s?
Elect a Leader
Activate Time Machine
Welcome to 1865 Independence, Missouri
• Choose your identity and write your name on the line. • Each identity represents a whole family and a single wagon. • Scorekeeper writes everyone’s name on the scoresheet, making sure the numbers match the numbers on the identity sheet. • If you have time, share your pioneer name and job.
Choose your identity
Heading Out What was it like on the prairie in 1865?
• Each person has his or her own wagon. • You load your own wagon and live or die based on what you pack. • You may NOT borrow things from other people. • You have 1,000 points to spend loading your wagon. • These points will not help you later - use them all. • You cannot get everything on the list - put the most important things in first.
Introduction: Loading the Wagon
• Add as you go - don’t wait for the end in case you get too many things and have to start over. • Try to get as close to 1,000 points as you can. • Do NOT go over 1,000 points - your oxen will die of exhaustion and strand you on the prairie.
Load Your Wagon
How do you make fire? Flint + steel = light, warmth, safety, cooking
Life Points on the Trail
• If you need something and you did NOT pack it: • Hold up 1 finger (that means, “Minus one for me!”) • If you need something and you DID pack it: • Cross your arms (that means, “I got it!”)
How to do dice rolls
Ready to head out?
• You are leaving the United States. • Cracking the whips, you drive the wagons slowly along the dirt trail. • You walk all day for 10 hours, and camp for your first night under the stars.
Scorekeepers: This is Section One
• It is May 10, 1865 • It’s only 10 days in, and already you are tired, your feet are blistered, and you can’t imagine walking all day, every day, for two more months. • So far, your path has led straight across the prairie, but today you have come to a fork in the road.
Decision One: Choose a Trail
• The left-hand fork is the Smoky Hill Trail. • It’s 100 miles shorter than the Oregon Trail. • However, it is more dangerous. • There is so little food, water, and wood that it has become known as the Starvation Trail. • The last 100 miles of the trail do not follow a river. Often the piles of dirt marking the trail are trampled by buffalo, and people get lost. • It also goes right past the scene of last November’s Sand Creek Massacre. The local tribes are on the warpath. There are reports of Indian attacks on this trail.
Smoky Hill Trail
• The right-hand fork is the Oregon Trail. • It is 600 miles on the Oregon Trail to reach Denver. • This trail is well-traveled and easy to follow. • The water from the Platte River tastes bad, but is drinkable, although you’ve heard reports of illness on this trail. • You will have to pass by Julesburg, which was attacked by Indians a few months ago. • There are reports of Indian attacks on this trail.
• Choose a trail - Smoky Hill or Oregon Trail. • Discuss the options and vote. • Tell your teacher which trail your team has chosen.
Life on the Trail
Add up points
Decision #2: Crossing the River
The Ferry: • The ferry is an old, splintery, flat-bottomed boat strung across the river between two ropes. • It can only hold one wagon at a time. It will take all day to get the entire wagon train across. • It’s hard work hauling the boat back and forth across the strong current, especially with the river so high. • Although the ferry usually costs $4 per trip, the ferryman is charging extra because of the danger. • Today he wants $12 per wagon. • Some people are outraged, saying they can’t afford the ridiculously high prices.
The Ford: • You can go upstream about a mile and try to ford the river where it is shallower. • However, the river is unusually high today. • The far bank is steep and slippery, with quicksand in places in the middle. • You can see by the tipped-over wagon laying midstream that driving across may be dangerous.
1. Split up as a group. People with enough money take the ferry, and everyone else takes the ford. 2. Share money with the wagon train so everyone can pay the ferryman. After all, the point of traveling together is to stay safe, and the ferry is the safer option. 3. Try the ford. Have the best driver in each family try to make it across. 4. Turn to crime. Take the ferry, but then after everyone is safely across, sneak back at night to attack the ferryman and take your money back.
Discuss the options and vote. 1. Split up 2. Share money 3. Try the ford. 4. Turn to crime. Tell your teacher what your team has chosen.
Scorekeepers: This is Section Two
Welcome to Denver!
Native American Voices
Imagine your classroom is a map of the United States. • Desk area #1 = East Coast to Appalachian Mountains • Desk area #2 = Appalachians to Mississippi River • Desk area #3 = Mississippi to Rocky Mountains • Desk area #4 = Rockies to West Coast
Conflict #1: Land
• Green Group are Native Americans. • They spread out so there’s at least one person at each desk group. • Everyone else should stand by the door (the Atlantic Ocean.)
• Now let’s think about the group standing at the door. • In 1620 you are Pilgrims, coming to the New World from Europe. • Why are you leaving Europe?
• In 1620 Native Americans live across all of North America. • Various tribes live in different regions. They’ve adapted to the climate and food in their area, living in different kinds of housing, and each tribe has its own language and culture. • Many of them have lived in their area for hundreds of years - many generations.
• Pilgrims chant, “Land! Land! We want land!" • One Pilgrim will be Uncle Sam (the government.) • Uncle Sam talks to the Native Americans at Desk Area #1: East Coast. • Uncle Sam says, “Sorry, you need to move west. But I promise that land will be yours forever and we’ll never bother you again.” • Native Americans at the East Coast decide what to do and roll the dice. • Repeat twice, moving further west each time.
Please return to your seats
If you were a Native American, would you believe any new promises or treaties from the government? Why or why not?
What did Native Americans and Settlers Fight About?
Issue #1: LANDThe Native Americans and settlers were fighting about land because settlers moved onto land the Indians had lived on for many years, pushing the Indians off onto reservations.
If you are in green group (Native Americans), catching a buffalo means you get food for your family and supplies for survival.If you are a settler (everyone else), catching a buffalo means you can sell the skin for $3 - that’s three times what you could earn for a day’s work.Each person gets to roll the die. If you catch a buffalo, gain 2 life points.
Add points Add 2 points for anyone who caught a buffalo
• Issue #2: Buffalo • They also fought about buffalo because the Indians needed the buffalo to live. The settlers killed so many buffalo, they almost became extinct. Many Indians starved.
Read Culture Conflict Play
Issue #3: CULTUREOne idea that caused problems was culture. The Indians and settlers had different beliefs about the right way to live. Some Indian children were put into government schools to teach them to live like the settlers.
Want to Earn Some Points?
Choose ONE of the following:You are a Trail Guide. Make a poster to convince new settlers to travel to Denver with you. Give at least 3 reasons why they might want to move West. Use pictures and color to make your poster appealing.Draw the inside of your wagon, showing (and labeling) how you packed all your supplies into the wagon.Local Native American tribes have hired you to share their point of view about settlers moving West. Create a poster or slogan for them.Draw a double-bubble map comparing American Indians and settlers.
Up to 3 points per project:1 point for effort1 point for details1 point for historical accuracy
How did the lives of Native Americans in the west change when settlers came?
• Form a group of 3 people • Together, come up with ONE reason people moved to Denver in 1865. • Come up with ONE problem that caused fighting between the Native Americans and settlers in Colorado. • Be ready to share.
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